The thin-legged wolf spider (Pardosa mackenziana) belongs to the arachnid class, a group of spiders.
The spread of a thin-legged spider is a wolf.
A thin-legged wolf spider is found in the Non-Arctic region, widely distributed in North America and Canada, throughout the northern part of the United States, from coast to coast. The range extends far south, to Colorado and Northern California. This type of spider is also present in Alaska.
The habitat of the thin-legged spider is the wolf.
Thin-legged wolf spiders are terrestrial spiders found in temperate regions. They usually live on trees in the forest and often come across among fallen trunks. The habitat includes a variety of biotopes: deciduous and coniferous forests, salt marshes, swamps and beaches. Thin-legged wolf spiders can also be found in the taiga and alpine tundra. They were recorded at a mark up to an altitude of 3500 m. They hibernate in forest litter.
External signs of a thin-legged spider - a wolf.
Thin-legged wolf spiders are rather large spiders. This species is characterized by sexual dimorphism, females are slightly larger than males, from 6.9 to 8.6 mm in length, and males from 5.9 to 7.1 mm in length. Wolf spiders have a high pointed cephalothorax and long legs with 3 claws. They have three rows of eyes: the first row is on the lower part of the head, it is formed by four eyes, two large eyes are located slightly higher and a little further two middle eyes.
The brown cephalothorax has a light brown-red strip extending in the center of the dorsal side, wide dark brown stripes located on the sides. A light brownish-red stripe extends down the center of the abdomen, surrounded by narrow dark stripes. The area around the eyes is black, and the legs have dark brown or black alternating rings. Males and females are equally colored. The fragile spiders are covered with white bristles, which fold into a figure in the shape of the letter V in the middle of their shell.
Reproduction of a thin-legged spider - a wolf.
Thin-legged wolf spiders mate in May and June, after the adult overwintered individuals have already molted. Males detect pheromones of females with the help of chemoreceptors located on the forelimbs and palps. Visual and vibrational signals in spiders can also be used to detect the sexual partner.
Mating lasts about 60 minutes.
Males use their pedipalps to transfer sperm to the genitals of females. Then the female begins to weave a cocoon, rotating in a circle and attaching a disk on the ground to the substrate. The eggs are laid in the center and the covering disk on the upper part is connected to the lower disk to form a sac. Then the female separates the cocoon with chelicerae and attaches masonry under the abdomen with spider webs. She wears a cocoon with her all summer time. Females with eggs often sit on fallen tree trunks in a sunny place. Perhaps, in this way, they accelerate the development process by increasing the temperature. There are 48 eggs in the clutch, although its size depends on the size of the spider. A female can weave a second cocoon, but it usually contains fewer eggs. The eggs in the second pouch are larger and contain more nutrients needed for a short period of development, followed by wintering.
Males die soon after mating, and females transport in the summer, protect eggs and hatched spiders.
The appeared spiders ride on the female’s abdomen until the end of June or the end of July, then they disperse and become independent. These immature individuals usually winter in the litter from late September or October and appear in April next year. Adult spiders feed from April to September, but their numbers usually increase from May to June, the number of spiders depends on the time of year. Thin-legged spiders - wolves breed annually, and offspring appear in any of the three summer months in the summer. The spiders that emerge from the second masonry have little time to grow up and prepare for wintering. Regardless of when young spiders hatch, they are ready to mate in the spring, or one or two years later, depending on the region.
The development cycle of thin-legged spiders - wolves living in the north, is two years, and in the south, development lasts one year. Males die soon after mating, while females live longer, although probably less than one year.
The behavior of a thin-legged spider - a wolf.
Thin-legged wolf spiders are lonely, predators that live mainly on the ground, although females often inhabit fallen tree trunks that are well warmed up in the sun. Heat is necessary for the development of eggs.
Young spiders winter in the forest litter.
Thin-legged wolf spiders usually expect prey to pass by an ambush. They use speed of movement, long legs and a poisonous bite to catch the victim. In populations of thin-legged wolf spiders, cannibalism is manifested. This type of spider is not territorial, since the average density in the habitats is high and is 0.6 per square meter. The habitat is not limited, and spiders spread as far as they can cover the distance on the earth. The brown color and patterns on the top of the carapace for these spiders are a means of disguise when they move on the ground.
The feeding of the thin-legged spider is the wolf.
Thin-legged wolf spiders are predators that prey on insects. Their bite is poisonous, and large chelicera inflict significant mechanical damage. They feed on a variety of arthropods, but mainly insects.
Value to the person.
Thin-legged wolf spiders can inflict painful and poisonous bites, but there is no information about the victims. Large spider chelicerae are more dangerous than their poison, pain, swelling, redness and ulceration appear at the site of the bite. In these cases, medical attention is required. It is likely that thin-legged wolf spiders can bite a person, but this rarely happens only when spiders feel threatened.